Search Term Record

  • Email This Page
  • Send Feedback
Name Keuffel & Esser Co.
Details A manufacturer of drafting, surveying, architectural and engineering tools (including the slide rule, a device that they introduced to America) that established itself in Hoboken in 1875. While founded in New York City in 1867 and where it maintained a "Parent Office", by 1880 it began to build what became a complex of buildings for general offices and factories in Hoboken on the north side of Third Street running from Clinton to Adams Streets including the one with a four-sided clock tower in 1907. Company is often referred to as "K&E".

They issued circa 45 editions of their catalog which are the major resource for identifying their production. Many items are marked as "Keuffel & Esser, N.Y." or "K&E, N.Y." They were actually made or assembled in Hoboken. Some products also have the Hoboken name and/or address on them plus on some printed labels and in catalogs, the artist's bird's-eye view of the Hoboken buildings which was captioned "General Office and Factories in Hoboken, N.J."

Not all items were made in Hoboken; some products or parts were imported from Britain, Switzerland and Germany et al (and were marked with the country of origin), but Hoboken served as the point for packaging and distribution. The range of catalogue products was extensive, but they also produced a large number of items that did not appear in their catalogues, such as scientific apparatus, machine tools, government and military orders, etc. It should be noted that dating items and serial numbers related to the their lines is problematic. The company is no longer in business, although its trademarks are owned by another corporation.

The company left Hoboken circa 1967-68 for a new center of operations in Morristown, New Jersey. The building with the clock tower was converted to residential housing in the 1970's, one of the earliest examples of the adaptive re-use of industrial buildings for living. The apartment house is now commonly called The Clock Tower Building.

The information provided below is as published by the source. It should be noted that there are variances in dates relating to Keuffel and Esser.
____
From National Museum of American History, Behring Center, 2008.

William J. D. Keuffel (1838–1908) and Herman Esser (1845–1908), both recent immigrants from Germany, began in business in New York in 1867, selling drawing materials and drafting supplies. K&E, as the firm was soon known, began offering surveying instruments in 1876, built a three-story factory in Hoboken, New Jersey, in 1880. and was incorporated in 1889.

K&E introduced a new line of surveying instruments in the early 1890s, describing them as "a thorough departure from all the styles of similar instruments previously made," and noting that many of their improvements were "the product of the genius of our Mr. John Paoli." John Paoli was an Italian who lived in Hoboken, and who obtained several patents for such things as the twisted standards of a transit, the compass box, the leveling screws, and a telescope with stadia wires and cross hairs.

K&E obtained control of Young & Sons in 1918, and made it the Y&S department of their firm. K&E ceased production around 1969. [Not correct]


Information on collection at New Jersey Historical Society as of June 2008. http://www.jerseyhistory.org/findingaiddirnb.php?dir=EAD/faid2000&aid=mg1639#a1

Guide to the Keuffel & Esser Company Papers
1800-1990s
MG 1639

The New Jersey Historical Society
52 Park Place
Newark, New Jersey 07102
Contact: NJHS Library
(973) 596-8500 x249
library@jerseyhistory.org
http://www.jerseyhistory.org
© 2006 All rights reserved.
The New Jersey Historical Society, Publisher
Processed by Nikki Taheri.

Finding aid encoded by Julia Telonidis. July 2006. Production of the EAD 2002 version of this finding aid was made possible by a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.Finding aid written in English.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Descriptive Summary
Creator: Keuffel & Esser Co.
Title: Keuffel & Esser Company Papers
Dates 1862-2004
Abstract: The collection consists mostly of materials pertaining to the Hoboken, NJ based company Keuffel & Esser, manufacturers of drafting and surveying equipment.
Quantity: 10 linear feet (5 manuscript boxes and approx. 50 rolls)
Collection Number: MG 1639

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Historical Note:
Wilhelm Johann Diedrich Keuffel and Herman Esser were partners in the firm of Keuffel & Esser which was founded in July 1867 at 79 Nassau St. Manhattan. They were two German immigrants,who were importers and jobbers of drawing materials and mathematical and surveying instruments. Keuffel (1838-1908), born in Walbeck, Germany and was employed in the hardware business in Germany and Birmingham, England, prior to his immigration to Hoboken, NJ, in 1866. The next year he joined with Herman Esser (1845-1908) who was originally from Wuppertal-Elbertfeld. In 1875, the firm was incorporated as Keuffel & Esser Company (also known as K & E) and moved from Manhattan to Third and Grand Street in Hoboken, New Jersey. Wilhelm J. D. Keuffel died in Hoboken, New Jersey in 1908. Herman Esser retired from Keuffel & Esser Co. in 1902. He was back in Bad Godesberg am Rheim, Germany in April of 1902 and died there in April 1908. The company continued to prosper under new leadership.

In the coming decades, Keuffel & Esser began to expand, opening showrooms, offices and new factories in New York, New Jersey, Chicago, St. Louis, San Francisco, Detroit, and Montreal. They first manufactured surveying instruments in 1885 and introduced an innovative new line of surveying equipment in the 1890s. The company's first product was hard rubber curves and triangles. Later products included drafting paper, surveying instruments, and drafting aids such as slide rules. Keuffel & Esser held patents for a wide range of slide rule features, including improved cursor indicators, functions and scales, and the adjustable body mechanism. The company was so successful that in 1965 it went public on NASDAQ. However, in the coming years, rapid changes in technology including the development of calculators, CAD systems and laser surveying systems, had a detrimental effect on Keuffel & Esser, which shrank drastically after 1972. In 1982 Keuffel & Esser filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and eventually was bought out by several companies including Azon Corporation. Currently, Azon Corporation owns the Keuffel & Esser name and trademarks.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Scope and Content Note
The collection contains records of the Keuffel & Esser Company including correspondence, reports, minutes, ledgers, equipment drawings, architectural drawings and plans, corporate records, proposals and lease agreements and contracts pertaining to both their domestic and international business.

**Special note:** This collection in only partially processed. There are hundreds of architectural and equipment drawings that have not been processed or incorporated into this finding aid. They are stored in both 5th floor storage and at the offsite facility. Patron access of these drawings is currently very limited. These drawings will be incorporated into the rest of the collection at a later time.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Access Points
The entries below represent persons, organizations, topics, forms, and occupations documented in this collection.

Subject Names:
Busch, A.E.
Esser, Herman.
Grogan, Edward T.
Keuffel, Wilhelm J. D.
Nye, Thomas R.
Schermerhorn, H. F.
Volpe, George S.
Wood, Sam Jr.

Subject Organizations:
Keuffel & Esser Co.

Subject Topics:
Drawing instruments.
Mechanical drawing.
Slide-rule.
Surveying instrument industry.
Surveying--Instruments.

Subject Places:
Belgium.
Chicago (Ill.)
Hoboken (N.J.)
Japan
Newark (N.J.)
Ontario.
Puerto Rico.
Washington (State)

Document Types:
Architectural drawings.
Contracts.
Letters (Correspondence)
Manuals.
Minutes.
Plans (Drawings)
Stock certificates.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Related Material
See also: Four Keuffel & Esser Catalogs, 6th floor books, Call numbers 681.2 K42-K516 (6th floor stacks)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Administrative Information
Preferred Citation
This collection should be cited as: Manuscript Group 1639, Keuffel & Esser Co. Papers, The New Jersey Historical Society.

Acquisition Information
Donated by Susan I. Sherwood, 2004.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Series Descriptions and Container List

Series 1: Corporate Records

Scope and Content:

This series contaings items pertaining to the corporate activities of Keuffel & Esser from many of their offices including those in Seattle, Washington, Puerto Rico, Canada, including meeting minutes, stock certificate books, insurance records and lease agreements.

Box Folder Title Date
1 1 Company correspondence, mostly pertaining to the property on the West Ohio Street lot in Chicago 1911-1945
1 2 Minutes of meeting of the board of directors of Keufel & Esser companies in USA 1960-1969
1 3 Minutes of meeting of the board of directors of Keufel & Esser companies in USA 1970-1989
1 4 Corporate records of H.Dell Foster Co., subsidiary of Keufel & Esser 1970-1979
1 5 Corporate records Limited of Keufel & Esser in Ontario, Canada 1960-1964
1 6 Corporate records Limited of Keufel & Esser in Ontario, Canada 1965-1969
1 7 Corporate records Limited of Keufel & Esser in Ontario, Canada 1970-1979
1 8 Corporate records Limited of Keufel & Esser in Ontario, Canada 1980-1989
1 9 Corporate records of Keufel & Esser Company of Washington Inc. (Seattle, Washington) 1955-1961

Box Folder Title Date
2 1 Laser Systems & Electronic, Inc. of Tullahoma, TN minutes of directors meetings--Affiliate of Keuffel & Esser 1974-1979
2 2 Incorporation records of Keuffel & Esser in Puerto Rico 1968-1985
2 3 Incorporation records of Keuffel & Esser in NJ and Delaware 1968-1985
2 4 Keuffel & Esser of Wisconsin stock certificate books (2) ca. 1950s
2 5 Contracts 1980s
2 6 Clerk's handwritten notes 1985-1886

Box Folder Title Date
3 1 Invoices 1960s-1990s
3 2 Keuffel & Esser real estate in Hoboken n.d.
3 3 Correspondence regarding insurance 1970s
3 4 Rokuoh Keuffel & Esser (Japanese Joint Venture) 1980s
3 5 Lease agreements (mostly pertaining to Belgium) 1970s-1980s
3 6 Keuffel & Esser Chicago branch documents
3 7 Equipment lease agreements 1967-1975
3 8 Equipment lease agreements 1976
3 9 Equipment lease agreements 1977-1984

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Series 2: Product/Work/Plan/Architecural Records

Scope and Content:

This series contains materials pertaining to the products produced by or related to Keuffel & Esser including information about products offered, architectural building plans, equipment information and manuals.

Box Folder Title Date
4 1 Product quotations 1970s
4 2 Paperwork NIP Height Gauge--T Machine 1970s
4 3 Taconic Plot Plans 1970s
4 4 Hazardous Product Listing and Product Safety Information 1950s-1970s
4 5 Production record book 1962-1982
4 6 Production record book 1983-2002

Box Folder Title Date
5 1 Installation and Maintenance instructions 1983-2002
5 2 Equipment Information 1983-2002
5 3 Product catalog Leroy Products group 1983-2002
5 4 Operators Instruction Manual--Blade Coater 1983-2002
5 5 Building Guidelines (Belgium) 1973-1975
5 6 Building Plans (mostly Belgium) n.d.
5 7 Equipment drawings 1973-1975

Number of Archive records 178
Number of Object records 258
Number of Library records 38
Number of Photo records 28

Associated Records

Image of B+W copy print of Keuffel & Esser Co. building at 4th & Adams, Hoboken ca. early 1960's. Photographer unknown. - Print, Photographic

B+W copy print of Keuffel & Esser Co. building at 4th & Adams, Hoboken ca. early 1960's. Photographer unknown. - Print, Photographic

Black-and-white copy print showing Keuffel & Esser Co. building at 4th & Adams, Hoboken ca. early 1960's. 8" x 10" print. Photographer unknown. Elevated view looking northwest with clock tower. Referred to by the company as the West Building.

Image of Color photo of painted sign on building: K & E Co. (Keuffel & Esser), Third St. between Adams and Grand Sts., Hoboken, Jan. 3 & 4, 2002. - Print, Photographic

Color photo of painted sign on building: K & E Co. (Keuffel & Esser), Third St. between Adams and Grand Sts., Hoboken, Jan. 3 & 4, 2002. - Print, Photographic

Color photo of painted sign on building: K & E Co. (Keuffel & Esser), on Third St. between Adams and Grand Sts., Hoboken, Jan. 3 & 4, 2002. 4" x 6" print. Reverse is blank. Photograph copyright by Jean-Paul Picard. This image in jpeg format is on a compact disk-read only under archives catalog 2002.220.

Image of Reference image of printed photo image of Keufel & Esser building from pg 20 of archives catalog 2002.026.0002, Hoboken, ca. 1975. - Print, Photographic

Reference image of printed photo image of Keufel & Esser building from pg 20 of archives catalog 2002.026.0002, Hoboken, ca. 1975. - Print, Photographic

Reference image of printed photo image of Keuffel & Esser building with clock tower from pg 20 of archives catalog 2002.026.0002, Hoboken, ca. 1975. Photo taken by Caroline Carlson Redden. See related. The view is looking northeast.

Image of Reference image of printed photo image of Keufel & Esser building under renovation from pg 20 of archives catalog 2002.026.0002, Hoboken, ca. 1975. - Print, Photographic

Reference image of printed photo image of Keufel & Esser building under renovation from pg 20 of archives catalog 2002.026.0002, Hoboken, ca. 1975. - Print, Photographic

Reference image of printed photo image of Keuffel & Esser building under renovation from pg 20 of archives catalog 2002.026.0002, Hoboken, ca. 1975. Photo taken by Caroline Carlson Redden. See related.

Image of Reference image of printed photo image of Keufel & Esser building under renovation from pg 21 of archives catalog 2002.026.0002, Hoboken, ca. 1975. - Print, Photographic

Reference image of printed photo image of Keufel & Esser building under renovation from pg 21 of archives catalog 2002.026.0002, Hoboken, ca. 1975. - Print, Photographic

Reference image of printed photo image of Keuffel & Esser building under renovation from pg 21 of archives catalog 2002.026.0002, Hoboken, ca. 1975. Photo taken by Caroline Carlson Redden. See related.

Image of Compact disk with "Hoboken, N.J." slide show with music; old images compiled by John Leahy, 2006. - Disk, Compact

Compact disk with "Hoboken, N.J." slide show with music; old images compiled by John Leahy, 2006. - Disk, Compact

Compact disk with "Hoboken, N.J." slide show with music; old images compiled by John Leahy, Lyndhurst, N.J., 2006. Disk has 4 folders with slide show; slide show software; media folder; control folder. Three copies: original disk and 2 archival copies. Set of 53 reference prints on file. PDF. See notes. Leahy was born and raised in Hoboken. Selected images from his personal collection and except for one of his great grandfather from the 1800's, all range from 1917 to 1949. There are 50 images: 48 photos plus 2 images of a document, his 1937 graduation program from Saints Peter & Paul School, Hoboken, plus two images of the reverse of 2 photos and one caption sheet. Some images have been c

Image of Compact disk with "Hoboken, N.J." slide show with music; old images compiled by John Leahy, 2006. - Disk, Compact

Compact disk with "Hoboken, N.J." slide show with music; old images compiled by John Leahy, 2006. - Disk, Compact

Compact disk with "Hoboken, N.J." slide show without music; old images compiled by John Leahy, Lyndhurst, N.J., 2006. Disk has 4 folders with slide show; slide show software; media folder; control folder. Three copies: original disk and 2 archival copies. Also exists on a separate disk made by Leahy, 2006.025.0100, as a slide show with music. All images attached to that record along with a PDF. A set of 53 reference prints is on file for that record . See notes. Leahy was born and raised in Hoboken. Selected images from his personal collection and except for one of his great grandfather from the 1800's, all range from 1917 to 1949. There are 50 images: 48 photos plus 2 images of a documen

Film: Hoboken. Public service film produced by P.S.E.& G. re Keuffel & Esser Clock Tower Apts., n.d., ca.1976-1977. - Film

Film: Hoboken. Public service film produced by Public Service Gas & Electric re conversion of the former Keuffel & Esser Co. factory building to the Clock Tower Apartments, no date, circa 1976-1977. 16mm, 10" reel. Not viewed at this time. See 2009.027.0001 for DVD transfer of this film. See notes for details about that DVD. Description as found on can: A short public service film about the history of Hoboken prepared by PSE&G in the early to mid-70's to celebrate the conversion of the Keufel & Esser Building (The Clock Tower Building) into family housing. The work is untitled other than "Hoboken!" with children shouting "Hoboken" in unison near the beginning of the film. It uses still

Image of Digital images, 3, of the Keuffel and Esser Co. Building clock tower, Hoboken, August 8, 2004. - Photograph

Digital images, 3, of the Keuffel and Esser Co. Building clock tower, Hoboken, August 8, 2004. - Photograph

Digital images, 3, of the Keuffel and Esser Co. Building clock tower, Hoboken, August 8, 2004. Photographs taken by Robert Foster. Archived on disk. Image caption numbers are camera file image numbers. Views are north. A local landmark commonly called the Clock Tower Building.

Image of Digital images, 18, of Historic Sites Walking Tour led by Allen Kratz, Hoboken, March, 2005. - Print, Photographic

Digital images, 18, of Historic Sites Walking Tour led by Allen Kratz, Hoboken, March, 2005. - Print, Photographic

Digital images, 18, of Historic Sites Walking Tour led by Allen Kratz with Paul Somerville, Hoboken, March, 2005. Photographer not indicated. Archived on disk. Caption numbers are camera file numbers and are not always consecutive. Tour was one of four sponsored by the Hoboken Historical Museum.

Image of Color aerial photo of Saint Mary Hospital, Hoboken, circa 1977-1978. - Transparency, Slide

Color aerial photo of Saint Mary Hospital, Hoboken, circa 1977-1978. - Transparency, Slide

Color aerial photo of Saint Mary Hospital, Hoboken, circa 1977-1978. 35mm slide transparency; glass mount as received. Photo taken by Peter De Simone. Reference prints on file. Images for this accession are archived on disk. Described by photographer as: St. Mary Hospital Old, #3. Photograph was commissioned by the client, the construction company: HBE Hospital Building & Equipment Company, St. Louis, MO. View is east with the new hospital buildings seen between Third and Fourth Streets from Willow Avenue to Clinton Street. Both the new north and south buildings of the hospital are seen completed; the old hospital building, if it was still standing, would be behind the new north wing

Image of Color aerial photo of Saint Mary Hospital, Hoboken, circa 1974-1975. - Transparency, Slide

Color aerial photo of Saint Mary Hospital, Hoboken, circa 1974-1975. - Transparency, Slide

Color aerial photo of Saint Mary Hospital, Hoboken, circa 1974-1975. 35mm slide transparency; glass mount as received. Photo taken by Peter De Simone. Reference prints on file. Images for this accession are archived on disk. Described by photographer as: St. Mary Hospital Old, #2E. Photograph was commissioned by the client, the construction company: HBE Hospital Building & Equipment Company, St. Louis, MO. View is west with the old hospital building seen at the corner of Fourth St. and Willow Avenue. Immediately south of it is the new hospital (south wing - main entrance) under construction. Note that the north (New Wing) building that will cover the southeast corner of Clinton and F

Image of B+ W aerial photos, 5, of Saint Mary Hospital & vicinity, Hoboken, circa 1976-1977. - Negative, Roll Film

B+ W aerial photos, 5, of Saint Mary Hospital & vicinity, Hoboken, circa 1976-1977. - Negative, Roll Film

Black-and-white aerial photos, five, of Saint Mary Hospital and vicinity, Hoboken, circa 1976-1977. Single strip 35mm Kodak 5062 [Pan X] negative film. Photos taken by Peter De Simone. Reference prints on file. Images for this accession are archived on disk. Photographs were commissioned by the client, the construction company: HBE Hospital Building & Equipment Company, St. Louis, MO. Negative number 2A: view northeast. Note the new bank building at the northeast corner of Fifth St. and Willow Avenue. This was the site of Stevens Hoboken Academy which was demolished in mid-1976. Negative number 3A: view to east of the Clinton Street side of the hospital. The North (new) wing is

Image of Digital video disk: P.S.E.& G. public service film about Clock Tower Apartments/Keuffel & Esser Factory, n.d., ca. 1976-1977. - Disk, Digital Video

Digital video disk: P.S.E.& G. public service film about Clock Tower Apartments/Keuffel & Esser Factory, n.d., ca. 1976-1977. - Disk, Digital Video

Digital video disk: Public Service Electric and Gas public service film about Clock Tower Apartments/Keuffel & Esser Factory, no date, circa 1976-1977. No copyright or issue date is given. Color sound film transferred to DVD circa May 2005, MPEG-2 format as video objects. Running time: 16:34. Three copies. The work is untitled other than "Hoboken!" with children shouting "Hoboken" in unison near the beginning of the film. It uses still images of historical and modern scenes and documents along with film shot in 1975 and 1976 including the dedication ceremony on Oct. 28, 1976 when the restored clock was re-started. Narrated by a number of people who are not identified with commentary about

Image of Sepia-tone photo: Fiftieth Anniversary, Carl M. Bernegau, 1890-1940, Keuffel & Esser Co. (Hoboken, N.J.) - Print, Photographic

Sepia-tone photo: Fiftieth Anniversary, Carl M. Bernegau, 1890-1940, Keuffel & Esser Co. (Hoboken, N.J.) - Print, Photographic

Sepia-tone photo: Fiftieth Anniversary, Carl M. Bernegau, 1890-1940, Keuffel & Esser Co. (Hoboken, N.J.) 8" x 10" wide print in embossed matte, with gold embossed titling centered in lower border. Overall: 11-3/8" x 13-3/8" with backboard. Photographer is not indicated. Location is unknown, but probably at the Hoboken office and factory complex. Reverse of photo and mount are blank. The mount is damaged at the center bottom with a chewed edge. Tiffs media archive. Bernegau is fourth from the left in the front row. He was the President of K&E from 1942-1946. He was an inventor with several patents related to surveying equipment which the company made. Seated to his right is possibly W.G.

Image of B+W photos, 8, of K&E [Co.] Camera Club activities, Hoboken et al, n.d., ca. 1950s. - Print, Photographic

B+W photos, 8, of K&E [Co.] Camera Club activities, Hoboken et al, n.d., ca. 1950s. - Print, Photographic

Leaf with eight artistically mounted black-and-white photos of Keuffel & Esser [Co.] Camera Club activities, Hoboken et al, no date, circa 1950s. Eight prints, circa 2-1/8" high x 3" wide mounted with rubber cement on white bond paper; drawn ink frames. Photographer is not indicated. People are not identified except as noted below. Reverse of mounting leaf is blank. These materials are from the personal papers of Keuffel & Esser Co. employee Anita Heimbruch of 1217 Garden St., Hoboken, who was a member of this club and President for a period. She was a life-long photographer and worked at K&E over twenty five years. The top two photos in the left column show a club meeting in the club

Digital images, 31, of HHM Keuffel & Esser exhibit, Hoboken, April 2010. - Photograph

Digital images, thirty-one, of the Hoboken Historical Museum exhibition, "Surveying the World: Keuffel & Esser + Hoboken, 1870-1968," 13th and Hudson Streets, Hoboken, April 19-20, 2010. Photographs taken by Dennis K. Johnson. Images copyright Dennis K. Johnson. Image caption is image number as found on original disk. Tiffs media archive.

Image of Color photos, 52, Keuffel & Esser exhibition at HHM, Feb. 7, 2010. - Photograph

Color photos, 52, Keuffel & Esser exhibition at HHM, Feb. 7, 2010. - Photograph

Color photographs, fifty two, of the Keuffel & Esser exhibition at the Hoboken Historical Museum, 1301 Hudson St., Hoboken, February 7, 2010. Digital images only. Photos taken by Richard Schneider. Image caption number is original camera file number and are not necessarily consecutive. Archived on CD. Exhibit title: Surveying the World: Keuffel & Esser + Hoboken 1870-1968.

Image of Sepia-tone group photo of Keuffel & Esser Co. employees, Hoboken, n.d., probably 1933.  - Print, Photographic

Sepia-tone group photo of Keuffel & Esser Co. employees, Hoboken, n.d., probably 1933. - Print, Photographic

Sepia-tone group photo of Keuffel & Esser Co. employees, Hoboken, no date, probably 1933. Two duplicate 8" x 10" wide prints. Photographer is not indicated. Reverse of photos is blank. See photos 2009.006.0195 for a similar photo from 1940. The photographs are from the personal memorabilia of Arthur Edwin Miller (1914-1984) who is seen in the photograph, back row, fourth from the right. Miller was probably an office boy and circa 16-18 years of age. Miller worked for K&E until the 1950s. His later role was in some manufacturing work as is known from his K&E tool chest, objects 2012.021.0100.(Starting as an office boy and becoming an apprentice in some other department or working your w

Image of B+W photo of Keuffel & Esser Co. building at 4th & Adams, Hoboken ca. early 1960's. Photographer unknown. - Print, Photographic

B+W photo of Keuffel & Esser Co. building at 4th & Adams, Hoboken ca. early 1960's. Photographer unknown. - Print, Photographic

Black-and-white photo of exterior of Keuffel & Esser Co. building at 4th & Adams Streets, Hoboken ca. early 1960's. 8" x 10" print. Photographer unknown. Reverse blank. Elevated view looking northwest with clock tower. Referred to by the company as the West Building.