|Title||Romance of the Hoboken Ferry.|
|Credit||Gift of Mildred Marion Pescatore Natale.|
|Author||Smith, Harry J., Jr.|
This record is a text only record with transcription of pages 40 to 71 of:
Library primary record, 2004.026.0004.
Romance of the Hoboken Ferry. By Harry J. Smith, Jr.
Under the personal supervision of John M. Emery, Manager Marine Department Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company.
NY: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1931.
Due to online database format restrictions, the full text will not display in this record. Related records may be seen that have the text in sections.
SEE library records online for text displayed in notes in four sections:
2004.026.0001 beginning to page 40.
2004.026.0001.01 pages 40 to 70
2004.026.0004.02 pages 70 to 100
2004.026.0004.03 pages 100 to end of volume.
(Transcriptions for long volumes must be split into related records due to online database format restrictions. The primary record does hold the full text and PDF as well as word documents are available.)
This record is a text only record with transcription of pages 40 to 71 for:
Romance of the Hoboken Ferry. By Harry J. Smith, Jr.
Under the personal supervision of John M. Emery, Manager Marine Department Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company.
NY: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1931.
SEE library record 2004.026.0004.02 for pages 70 to 100; library record 2004.026.0004.03 for pages 100 to end of volume.
For beginning of volume to page 40, see the primary record, 2004.026.0004.
by the custom of the ferry, and the resort thereto from the city as a place of entertainment.' Hone not only prevented the Colonel's public house from entertaining in the evening, but against all precedent and good order kept in his said ferryboats a "bar" for the sale of such refreshments as were furnished at the Colonel's ' '76 house.' Worse than all these, Hone kept his horses and mules at work fifteen hours without rest or intermission, while on the short ferries to Brooklyn they were changed two or three times a day. This crippled the ferry, caused a tedious, uncomfortable and uncertain passage over the river, discouraged visitors, diminished the Colonel's revenue, and depreciated his property. But why should Hone whip up his overworked and hungry mules when the thirsty passengers were 'cabined, cribbed, confined' on his boat, and must patronize the 'bar' on board, or endure thirst unassuaged? The longer the voyage, the more money in his purse. The Colonel thought of the ease and rapidity of conveyance to Staten and Long Islands by means of Fulton's steamboats; he saw the multitudes flocking to the resorts there provided, and then turned with disgust to the mules tramping their circular treadmill in a lazy, indifferent effort to get the boat to Hoboken, and its passengers to the refreshments awaiting them at his 'public house.' His wrath was kindled against Hone. He saw his great invention in the hands of others, and as he thought (perhaps justly) working irreparable injury to his hotel and other property.
"That part of the public, however, which was in
THE HONE MANAGEMENT
clined to look upon the humorous side of things, poked fun at his boat and the method of its propulsion. One of the visitors to Hoboken has left a record of his trip across the river. He says, 'We embarked on an aquatic conveyance, called by the people of these parts a horse boat. But I am inclined to think that this novelty is a mere sham, a trick upon travellers. There are a dozen sorry nags in this contrivance, which go round in a circular walk, with halters on one end and beams at the other extremity. How this orbicular movement can promote the rectilinear advancement of this mammoth boat is to me a mystery. And as we were six hours in crossing the river, I suspect that they go and come with the tide; and that the horses are a mere catchpenny, to bring their masters the trigesimosecundal part of a dollar more on every head than the customary ferriage levied on passengers. However, the unhappy quadrupeds appeared to strain very severely, and in their hinder quarters very particularly; indeed, every sinew of the latter part seemed to be over-exerted, while the neck, head and forelegs moved glibly enough, which is certainly a natural curiosity.'
"Notwithstanding the condition to which Hone had reduced the ferry, he held on to it, much to the annoyance and disgust of Colonel Stevens. Because of the inconveniences attending the crossing, the people of the City were not attracted to his beautiful island in the Hudson; its shady groves were not frequented; its city, begun with so much confidence in 1804, remained unbuilt. The Colonel was convinced
that this state of affairs would not change for the better so long as the ferry was thus managed. He tried to compromise his differences with Mr. Hone. He offered to continue the lease to him without further controversy if he would close the 'bar' on the boats and give up the lease he had obtained from the City of New York. This was refused and preparations were made for a battle royal."*
On September 16, 1819, Phillip Hone was granted by the Common Council the exclusive rights to establish a ferry to New Jersey from the North boundary of his present lease to the foot of Charlton Street and the exclusive right of establishing a ferry to Hoboken, from thence up to Christopher Street, for the term of fifteen years, at the same rent which was reserved for Charles Watts (exclusive rights for establishing a ferry from Christopher Street to Wee- hawken for the rent of one cent for the first five years, $50 annually for the second five years, and $250 annually for the last five years), also that his present lease be extended so as to expire at the same time at the annual rent of $800 for the period of time which may be extended, provided he will forthwith put two good sailboats on the ferry, and also put a horse boat on the same on or before the first of May next. Also provided he procures landing for same on each side of the ferry at his own expense, the landing in New York to be at any place within two hundred feet of the foot of Spring Street, but not
* Winfield, "Hophafhan Hackingh," pp. 45-46, 49.
within the slip. On October 2, 1820, the lease was granted by the City of New York.
"On Tuesday, August 29, 1820, between four and five P. M., Colonel Stevens, on advice of his counsel, Richard Stockton, went on the ferry wharf at Hoboken, and there in the presence of Lucas Van Boskerck and John Lee, informed John Van Bos- kerck, the ferrymaster, that he did then make entry to defeat the estate granted by the lease on account of the breaches of the covenants, and he then and there demanded the immediate surrender of the possession of the ferry house, wharf, and appurtenances. All these demands were refused, as he expected they would be. The suit, begun with so much formality, was never pushed to judgment."*
On March 5, 1821, a petition of Phillip Hone, Lessee of the Hoboken Ferry, was received by the City of New York Common Council stating that, "as Lessee of the ferry, he had covenanted to put another horse boat on said ferry, which he was about doing when he was served with a Declaration of Ejectment from Mr. John Stevens, Proprietor of the City of Hoboken, for the purpose of reentering on the said ferry. As the issue of said suit is uncertain, he prays he may be excused for putting said boat on the ferry until the termination of the suit, and should that be adverse to petitioner's claim, that the Corporation would assign to him some other place for the ferry on the Jersey Shore."
On April 16, 1821, a remonstrance from a num-
* Winfield, "Hophaghan Hackingh," p. 49.
ber of inhabitants against the petition of Phillip Hone respecting his lease for the Hoboken Ferry was received, which prayed he might not be released from the conditions to run a horse boat from the foot of Spring Street or to remove the ferry on the Jersey Side from Hoboken. This remonstrance was referred to the Ferry Committee for action.
On the same day a memorial was received from John Stevens stating that he was the proprietor of the ferry at Hoboken on the Jersey side: "That he gave to Messrs. Swartwout a lease of said ferry for ten years, in which lease was a clause that the same should not be assigned, without the consent of the petitioner. That without his consent the Messrs. Swartwout assigned the lease to Mr. Phillip Hone. That Mr. Hone keeps on board his boat a 'Bar' in which refreshments are sold, it is much to the injury of the House of Entertainment ('76 House) estab-lished by Petitioner at Hoboken and praying that if the Corporation should assign to Mr. Hone a different landing place on the Jersey side, that they would assign to Petitioner a convenient landing for his boats on the New York side."
Reappearance of Steamboats
HOWEVER, in May, 1821, all controversies were settled by compromise. On May 28, a petition was received by the Common Council from Phillip Hone, John C. Stevens, and Robert L. Stevens, stating that they had made an agreement for the transfer and purchase of the right of ferriage heretofore granted by the Corporation to Phillip Hone conditionally, and petitioning that the same be approved by the Corporation. On August 20, 1821, the Ferry Committee to whom was referred the petition reported as follows:
The Committee on ferries to whom was referred the petition of Phillip Hone, John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens stating that they have made a conditional agreement for the transfer on the one side and the purchase on the other of all rights of ferriage heretofore granted by the Corporation to Phillip Hone, and requested the Corporation to transfer the lease of the ferry from Barclay and Spring Street to Hoboken to John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens.
REPORT-That Phillip Hone holds a lease from the Corporation of the ferry from Barclay Street to Hoboken dated August 10, 1818, for twelve years from the first of May, 1818, and it will consequently expire on the first of May, 1830, at an average rent of $595.00 per annum from the first of May, 1821. That by the conditions of this lease Hone has to keep upon this ferry a suitable number of good and substantial boats sufficiently large, and adapted as well, to transport horses and carriages, as passengers and in addi-
tion to these, two good and substantial teamboats each to be propelled by not less than eight good horses and also that the said Phillip Hone holds another lease from the Corporation of the ferry from Spring Street (without the slip and within two hundred feet of the foot of said street) to Hoboken dated October 2, 1820, for fifteen years from the first of May, 1820, which will therefore expire on the first of May, 1835 at the following rents, viz: The first five years at one cent per annum, the next five years at $50.00 per annum and the last five years at $200.00 per annum, and said lease contains an extension of five years for the ferry from the foot of Barclay Street to Hoboken at $800.00 per annum for the time extended (inconsequent of which both leases will expire at the same time) provided Hone puts in the ferry from Spring Street to Hoboken two good and substantial sailboats immediately, and also one good and substantial teamboat before the first of May, 1821. That Hone had complied with the conditions except putting a teamboat on the ferry, he states he was about contracting for the building of the teamboat for this purpose, when to his surprise Mr. John Stevens, Proprietor of the Island of Hoboken, for reasons unknown to him (Hone) issued a Writ of Ejectment for the purpose of reentering the ferry and that he, being ignorant of the cause of Mr. Stevens' proceedings, and aware of the uncertainty of the decision of the Juries and of the time which it might take to settle the question, did not think it prudent to incur the expense of building a teamboat and he petitioned the Corporation on the 26th of February last to grant him a reasonable extension of time to put the teamboat on the said ferry until after the result of Mr. Stevens' suit should be known and whereas John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens agree to make very great improvement on the said ferries by putting on the ferry from Barclay Street to Hoboken in the place of two teamboats now running a very superior steamboat from ninety to one hundred feet on deck and forty-two foot beam, the boat to be
built of the best cedar and oak, and the said John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens further agree that if the steamboat does not accommodate the public as well as the two teamboats now on said ferry, that they will at any time during the lease, when required by the Corporation, put on one teamboat, in addition to the said steamboat, and the said boats to be approved by the Corporation. And whereas also John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens are to put on the ferry from Spring Street to Hoboken in addition to the two sailboats now in use, a good and substantial teamboat to be propelled by not less than eight good horses by the first of May, 1822 (the said boats to be approved by the Corporation).
THEREFORE Your Committee having duly examined the business are decidedly of the opinion that the Public will be much better accommodated by having a steamboat in place of the two teamboats now running on the ferry from Barclay Street to Hoboken since (among other advantages they believe that the steamboat will make the passage in less than half the time taken by the teamboats).
Your Committee therefore recommends the adoption of the following resolutions:
RESOLVED: That above John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens place on ferry from Barclay Street to Hoboken a steamboat of the dimensions above stated, and to be approved by the Corporation in addition to the sailboats now on said ferry, and Phillip Hone surrendering to the Corporation the lease which he now holds of said ferry, that the Counsel Board be instructed to prepare in conformity to the tenor of this report, a new lease to John C. Stevens of the said ferry from Barclay Street to Hoboken for the period of nine years from the first of May, 1821, at the rent of $595 per year payable monthly, and
FURTHER RESOLVED that upon John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens placing on the ferry from Spring Street (without the slip and within two hundred feet of the foot of
said Street) to Hoboken one good and substantial teamboat in addition to the two sail boats now in use on said ferry on or before the first of May, 1822 and Phillip Hone surrendering to the Corporation the lease which he now holds on the said ferry that the Counsel of the board be instructed to prepare in conformity to the tenor of this report a new lease to John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens of said ferry from Spring Street to Hoboken for fourteen years from the first of May, 1821, at the following rents: for the first five years, one cent per year, for the next five years, $50 per year and for the last five years, $200 per year, payable quarterly, and that said lease shall contain an extension of the lease of the ferry from Barclay Street to Hoboken for five years (which will cause both leases to expire on the first of May, 1835) at a rent of $800 per year payable quarterly for the time extended.
RESOLVED that the leases mentioned in the proceedings and resolutions be so drawn as to comprehend of the conditions, restrictions, etc., which are contained in the corresponding leases to Phillip Hone and that the foregoing resolutions shall not be binding upon the Corporation until the leases which are to be approved by the Counsel shall be ordered to be executed by them, and the counterpart thereof shall be executed by the said John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens.
(Signed) THOMAS S. TOWNSEND
JOHN P. ANTHONY
"Colonel Stevens now memorialized the Legislature of New York for relief from the odious monopoly granted to Livingston and Fulton, for it had rested, and was then resting very heavily upon him. He had learned from experience that horses and mules were a weak substitute for steam, and when
put into competition with it were a sad failure. His prayer was 'that such permission may, by a law of this State, be made as will secure to him and to his lessees the quiet and peaceable occupation and enjoyment of such rights as appertain to him as proprietor of said Hoboken Ferry on the New Jersey side, and to them as lessees of said ferry as well on the New York side as on the New Jersey side.' He insisted that the grant to Livingston and Fulton was nugatory, but for the sake of peace was willing to make them a reasonable compensation 'for their grant of a right to run steamboats on the said Hoboken Ferry.'
"The day when this grant would be repudiated and the Legislature defied was near at hand. The right of that State to exclusive navigation on waters dividing two States was being discussed by lawyers. It had been taken into the courts, and was nearing its final adjudication. The more it was examined, the more untenable seemed the claim. Its supporters were few, its opponents were many.
"The new lessees obtained from the City of New York a lease requiring that they should place on the Barclay Street ferry a steamboat, the speed of which should be such as to make an equal number of trips per diem with the two teamboats then plying. This requirement was directly antagonistic to the acts of the Legislature. To meet it the Messrs. Stevens immediately began the construction of a steamboat of Very superior accommodations,' which was confidently expected to surpass every other ferryboat on
the river, and capable of making more trips than the teamboats in less than half the time.
"The Legislature of the State of New York did nothing to modify their grant to Livingston and Fulton, or to aid Colonel Stevens to restore steam to his ferry. Failing to get relief from that source, he turned upon their licensees, and informed the proprietors of the Paulus Hook Ferry that it was the purpose of the proprietor and lessees of the Hoboken Ferry to place thereon one or more steamboats. To this information he added the following offer and defiance: 'Provided, we are left undisturbed in running steamboats on the Hoboken Ferry, we are ready and willing to stipulate (now) that steamboats of similar construction shall be placed on the Paulus Hook Ferry. By such arrangement the two ferries will be placed nearly in the same relative position they now are, and a saving of nearly one-half the present expense will be effected. We would wish you to give us a speedy and definitive answer to the above proposition. It is, however, to be distinctly understood that whether the above proposition is or is not acceded to, we are fully determined to run steamboats on the ferry to and from Hoboken to New York.' With this bold defiance to the monopolists and their licensees, to the Legislature of New York and its unjust enactments, the controversy, so far as Colonel Stevens was concerned, ended."*
* Winfleld, "Hophaghan Hackingh," pp. 49, 50.
The Hulbert Street and Canal Street Ferries
ON November 3, 1821, the Hoboken Steamboat Ferry Company was incorporated.
On April 22, 1822, the steam ferryboat HOBOKEN was completed and Messrs. Stevens requested the members of the Common Council to view the operation of the boat that day, which request was accepted. The following appeared in one of the newspapers
at that time:
The Steamboat HOBOKEN, moves through the water at nine miles an hour. It is 98 feet long on deck, 26 feet wide, with a draft of only 3 1/2 % feet, about 200 tons burden and between 9 and 10 feet deep in the middle of her hold. She can afford accommodations for at least one hundred persons.
On April 29, 1822, the following resolution was adopted by the Common Council of the City of New York:
RESOLVED that the steamboat which was exhibited to the members of this Board by John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens as the one which they intend to place on the ferry from Barclay Street to Hoboken is approved of by this board as a boat fully complying with the report of the Ferry Committee upon the subject of granting a lease to said John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens.
The HOBOKEN started running on May 11, 1822,
and on May 14, 1822, the following appeared in the New York Evening Post:
The beautiful steam, ferryboat, built by Messrs. Stevens, to ply between this city and Hoboken commences its trips. The construction of this boat, which unites all that is desirable in speed, convenience, safety and economy, is highly creditable to the gentlemen who planned it, and in fact, to the mechanical ingenuity of the country.
Thereafter the HOBOKEN made trips "every hour by St. Paul's Church clock."
Hulbert Street Ferry
On August 24, 1822, a request from John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens was received by the Common Council requesting permission to remove the Hoboken Ferry from the Foot of Barclay Street to such other place as the Board might deem advisable during the continuance of the Yellow Fever, which was raging at that time, and on September 3, 1822, the following appeared in The Centennial of Freedom, a newspaper in Newark, N. J., reading:
The Hoboken Ferry has been removed because of Yellow Fever to the North Battery at the Foot of Hulbert Street, opposite St. John's Church. This is near the market, at present in Hudson Square.
On October 27, 1822, the ferry was returned to Barclay Street.
Canal Street Ferry
On January 6, 1823, a petition of John C. Stevens of New York City and Robert L. Stevens of
Hoboken was received by the Common Council of the City of New York, stating "that they are the Lessees of the Corporation of the ferry from Barclay Street to Hoboken; that some time about the 23rd of August, 1821, a resolution passed the Board granting to the Petitioners under certain conditions the rights to establish a teamboat ferry from the vicinity of Spring Street Basin to Hoboken, which resolution has not yet been acted on; that they consider a steamboat as infinitely preferable on that ferry to a teamboat, and, though more expensive, they would place one on it, provided they had the sanction of the Corporation; therefore, having established a steamboat on the Barclay Street ferry, a prosecution has been commenced against them by the New York and New Jersey Steamboat Company, but they are well satisfied that from the Charter of the City the Corporation possesses the exclusive rights of granting the right of ferries to steamboats or boats propelled in any manner that is not secured or prohibited by a patent from the United States. They, therefore, pray that a grant may be made to them by the Corporation of the right to the ferry from Spring Street to Hoboken and to place thereon a steamboat." This petition, after being read, was referred to the Ferry Committee.
On July 21, 1823, the Ferry Committee reported on the petition of John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens as follows:
The Committee on Ferries, to whom was referred the petition of John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens praying that
a grant may be made to them by the Corporation of the right to a ferry from Spring Street to Hoboken, have had the subject under consideration and beg leave to offer the following report:
THE PETITIONERS state in their petition that they are the Lessees of the Corporation of the ferry from Barclay Street to Hoboken; that some time about the 23rd of August, 1821, a Resolution passed the Board granting to the Petitioners under certain conditions a teamboat. ferry from the vicinity of Spring Street to Hoboken, which resolution has not yet been acted on, that they consider a steamboat as infinitely preferable to the horse boat and though more expensive they would place one on it provided they had the sanction of the Corporation therefor, but having established a steamboat on Barclay Street Ferry, a prosecution has been commenced against them therefor by the New York and New Jersey Steamboat Company, but they are well satisfied that from the Charter of the City the Corporation possesses the exclusive rights of granting the right of ferries to steamboats or boats propelled in any manner that is not secured or prohibited by a patent from the United States.
Shortly after the petition was presented the Committee thought it inexpedient to report in favor of the prayer of the Petitioner so far as it related to the guarantee required by the Petitioner. They have since however determined to put a good and substantial steamboat in immediate operation at their own risk if the Board will grant them the right of a ferry from a place located in the vicinity of Canal Street to Hoboken. It has long been an opinion very generally entertained that such a ferry ought to be established; and the Committee are disposed to believe that this establishment has been the plan contemplated by the Messrs. Stevens. It will not only tend to the advantage of a part of the city advancing more rapidly in improvement than perhaps in other districts embraced within these limits, but can
not fail to be a great public accommodation. The Committee would therefore recommend that a grant be made by the Corporation to John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens to a right of ferry from the vicinity of Canal Street to Hoboken agreeably to the terms of the following resolutions:
RESOLVED-That above John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens putting on the ferry to be established at the vicinity of Canal Street a good and substantial steamboat of similar size, construction and efficiency to one now in use at the Barclay Street ferry, to be approved by the Ferry Committee for the time being, the Counsel of the Board to be instructed to prepare a lease to them of such ferry for the term of fifteen years from the first day of May last at and under the following yearly rents-for the first five years the yearly rent of one cent if lawfully demanded, for the next five years the yearly rent of $50.00 and for the residue of the term the yearly rent of $200.00 payable quarterly.
RESOLVED-That for the first five years the ferry shall be located about eighty feet West of Washington Street at a certain street or intended street of thirty feet wide not yet named which street extends from Canal Street Basin on the North side and ground of Alexander L. Stewart on the South side, the first eighty feet thereof being filled up and the residue under water excepting such part as is occupied by the bulkhead erected on the South side of the said basin; and that for the residue of the said term the ferry shall be located at such place in the vicinity of Canal Street as shall be designated by the Corporation.
RESOLVED-That the said lease contain a clause granting to John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens, the exclusive right of ferry from the North Battery to Christopher Street and also a clause requiring that the steamboat shall leave the aforesaid Canal Street Ferry for Hoboken once at least in every hour from sunrise to sunset.
RESOLVED-That the lease to Messrs. Stevens shall contain the usual covenants and shall be inoperative until the lease held by Mr. Hone for the ferry at Spring Street dated October 2, 1820 be surrendered by Mr. Hone to the Corporation.
RESOLVED-That the said John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens comply with so much of the terms of the first resolution as relates to putting a steamboat on the ferry by the first of November next.
(Signed) GEORGE ZIBRISKIE
E. W. KING
This resolution was approved by the Board and adopted.
From 1823 to 1863
ON the first of September, 1823, the ferryboat PIONEER made its first trial trip and on the same date an invitation was received from Messrs. Stevens by the members of the Common Council to witness a trial of the boat, intended for the Spring Street Ferry, on Friday, September 3, 1823, at 4:30 P.M., which was accepted.
The boat was much faster than the HOBOKEN. It had a ladies' cabin below deck, carpeted and warmed by open fireplaces; and a further temptation to the ladies was the installation of two large looking- glasses. The boats were a success, and, with the horse- boats, transportation facilities to Hoboken were greatly increased.
The ferryboat FAIRY QUEEN came out in April, 1825, and was placed on the Canal Street Ferry, bringing an end to the horse boats. This boat was rebuilt in 1851 and named the PHOENIX.
Following the FAIRY QUEEN came the NEWARK, in 1828; and the PASSAIC was built in 1844. She was taken off the Hoboken Ferry later and sent to Newark, New Jersey. The ferryboat JOHN FITCH was built in 1846, followed by the JAMES RUMSEY in the same year. In 1853 the JAMES RUMSEY was destroyed by fire while lying in the slip at Barclay Street, New
York City. Her machinery was afterwards placed in the ferryboat PATERSON, which was built in 1854. The ferryboat JAMES WATT was built in 1851. She was destroyed by fire on August 2, 1870. The ferryboat CHANCELLOR LIVINGSTON was built in 1853. This boat was chartered by the United States Government in 1861 for a transport and was in this service for one year. Following her came the ferryboat HOBOKEN, which was built in 1861. This boat was chartered to the United States Government in 1862 and was lost in the Burnside Expedition in the same year. In the year 1863 the Stevens family built another ferryboat and called her the HOBOKEN.
Business was very brisk during these years, and the population of the City of Hoboken increased rapidly, so that it was incorporated as a city on March 28, 1855. It can be safely said that during this period the ferry had much to do with the building up of the City of Hoboken.
[Inserted plate] illustration: A Ferryboat of 1825- the Fairy Queen
Ferry Tariffs, 1825 and 1853
WITH the coming of steamboats, more frequent trips being made and better accommodation, the Messrs. Stevens at once saw they needed another tariff and on September 26, 1825, the following was approved:
For every single person, in the steam, horse or other
An ordinary market wagon, loaded, covered or uncovered with two horses and driver50
Do-with one horse and driver37 ½
Do-drawn by four horses and driver 1.00
(N.B. A load of a market wagon is to consist of vegetables, fruit, meats and poultry: a few bags of flour, such as five or six, which is generally the most a farmer carries at once to sell at market, may be considered a market article.)
Do-drawn by two horses loaded with iron, steel, lead, paint, cider, spirits, grain, flour in barrels,
bags, boxes or otherwise, and other heavy articles
Do-drawn by four horses and driver 1.50
Do-drawn by two horses, loaded with paper, hemp,
cotton, yarn, furniture, or other kind of
light goods and driver 1.00
Do-drawn by four horses and driver……………… 1.50
Do-or a cart empty drawn by one or two horses,
and driver .50
Do-when drawn by one horse with an ordinary load, such as a hogshead of rum or a similar weight and driver………… .75
Large Pennsylvania wagon, or a similar one empty,
drawn by two horses, and driver………. 1.00
Do-with load . . 2.00
For every additional horse to such wagon.18
Coach, coachee, chariot or covered wagon drawn
by two horses, and driver and four persons. ............................. 1.00
A two wheel carriage, that is to say, chair, sulky,
etc. drawn by one horse, and two persons.. .37 ½
Phaeton, drawn by two horses, and two persons. . …………… 1.00
Sleigh, drawn by one horse, and one or two persons …………… .50
Do-drawn by two horses, with one or two persons ………….. .87 ½
Loaded sleighs to be rated the same as loaded wagons.
Pleasure wagons drawn by one horse, with one or
two persons .50
Do-drawn by two horses, with four persons 1.00
A coach, coachee, chariot or covered wagon 1.00
Phaeton .62 ½
Chaise, top chair or sulky.44
Horse and cattle each.22
Sheep, calf or hog.06
Large trunk or chest ………….. .12 ½
Small dodo .06
Bushel of salt .02
Pipe or hogshead of wine, spirits or molasses.75
Barrel of do …………………………………………………………....12 ½
Barrel of beef, pork, flour or fish .12 ½
Plank of every kind, each.. .01 ½
Boards, do do .01
Side of sole leather .02
Do-of upper leather .01
Raw hide .03
Iron, steel, lead, per cwt .06
Desk .37 ½
Large table .09
Small do .04
Mahogany chair .02
Common do .01
Basket or bag of fruit of two bushels .04
Bag of grain .03
Bag of flour or meal .03
Crate of earthen ware .25
Tierce of earthen ware .25
Feather bed .06
Clock case .12 ½
Chest of tea .12 ½
Dyewood, indigo and copperas, per cwt .06
Gunpowder, per cwt., only when properly secured…………………………………… .25
A large bale of cotton .25
An empty hogshead or pipe .12 ½
Shad, per hundred .25
Cabbage, per hundred .19
Specie, per $1,000.00 .12 ½
and all other articles and things in like proportion.
Dated September 26, 1825.
The above tariff was kept in effect until 1853, when the ferries began to show a loss in revenue. From the year 1844 to 1853 the expenditures of the ferries amounted to $1,042,907.00, while receipts amounted to $970,123.00, a loss of $72,784.00. Owing to this loss, on March 14, 1853, the following rates were established:
Every person on foot, above ten years old .03
Under ten years and above five years .02
Man and horse, or horse only .09
Ordinary four wheel trucks, loaded, two horses
with one person .37 ½
Ordinarydo, light,do .25
do wagons, or market wagons, including loads of green clover and grass, two horses and one person...................................................................... .25
For every additional person .03
Ordinary wagons or market wagons, including loads of green clover or grass, one horse and one person .12 ½
For every additional person.03
A coach, coachee, chariot, barouche, phaeton, pleasure wagon or sleigh with more than one seat, two horses and one person……………………………………………….. .30
For every additional person .03
A light pleasure carriage, barouche, pleasure
wagon, one horse and one person .12 ½
For every additional person .03
A cart with driver, one horse, loaded or empty.............. .12 ½
[inserted plate] illustration. Ferryhouse, Hoboken, N.J., 1850
A wagon loaded with straw, or hay, with two horses
and one person .50
Dododowith one horse .37 ½
Any kind of carriage or sleigh without horse ½ price
A wheelbarrow and one person, loaded or empty. . .06
A hand cart and one person, loaded or empty .08
Cattle, single or in droveseach .15
Calves, sheep or hogs.03
The Christopher Street Ferry and the Hoboken Ferry from 1863 to 1885
IN July, 1836, the Christopher Street Ferry was started, connecting Hoboken with Christopher Street, New York. The opening of this ferry caused the abandonment of the Spring and Canal Street Ferries.
The popularity of the steam ferries was increasing rapidly, and other companies in the New York harbor were replacing their old boats with steam. The steam ocean travel was building up, so that on March 3, 1843, an Act of Congress organized the Steamboat Inspection Service. In 1853 an Act was passed to include all ferryboats, but it was not until June 4, 1864, that the ferryboats, their pilots, and engineers were brought within the provisions of the law for the inspection of the former and the license of the latter.
The first night boat to be placed on the ferries was the PHOENIX, in the summer of 1856.
During the Civil War the Messrs. Stevens saw business increasing, with the result that they had to start a building program. The ferryboat MORRISTOWN came out in 1864. This boat was built by John Stuart of Hoboken, was 682 gross tons, 547 net tons,
198 feet long, 44 feet wide, with a draft of 12 feet. Following her was the JAMES RUMSEY, which was built in 1867 by John Stuart of Hoboken. This ferryboat was 206 feet long, 44 4/10 feet wide, 11 4/10 feet draft, 547.37 net tons, and 671.64 gross tons. The ferryboat WEEHAWKEN was built in 1868. She was a duplicate of the JAMES RUMSEY.
The ferryboat HACKENSACK was built in 1871 by John Stuart of Hoboken. She was 917.22 gross tons, 757.01 net tons, 215 feet long, 50 feet wide, with a draft of 12.03 feet. The SECAUCUS was built by John Stuart of Hoboken in 1873. This boat was 214 feet long, 46 1/2 feet wide, with a draft of 12 6/10 feet. Her gross tonnage was 971, net tonnage 792, single deck, wooden hull, and cost $121,140.00. She was sold to the Carteret Ferry Company on November 20, 1920, to run between Carteret, New Jersey, and Linoleumville, New York.
The MOONACHIE was built in the year 1877 by John Stuart of Hoboken at a cost of $60,000.00. She was 197 6/10 feet long, 45 feet wide, with a draft of 13 1/2 feet, gross tonnage 810.94, and net tonnage 624.46. This boat was sold to the New York and College Point Ferry Co. in March, 1907.
The next boat to come out was the LACKAWANNA in 1881 by Ward Stanton & Company at Newburgh, New York. This boat was the first steel hull ferryboat to be built, and cost $76,000.00. She was 822 gross tons, 645 net tons, 200 feet in length, 35 feet wide, with a draft of 13 feet. In 1907 this boat was sold to the Norfolk and Washington Steamboat Com-
[inserted plate] picture. A ferryboat of the Civil War Period- the Morristown, 1864
pany of Washington, D. C., but it was sunk by a collision in the Potomac River and was never raised.
The steel hull ferryboat HOBOKEN was built in the same year the LACKAWANNA was built, by Ward Stanton & Company of Newburgh, New York. She was 891 gross tons, 714 net tons, 198 feet long, 35 feet wide, with a draft of 12 feet, and cost $88,000.00. This ferryboat was sold on December 6,1910 to J. R. Haas of the Brooklyn and Manhattan Ferry Company for $16,000.00.
The ferryboat PAUNPECK was built in 1882 by Ward Stanton & Company, Newburgh, New York. She was 820 gross tons, 627 net tons, 199 feet long, 35 feet wide, draft 12 feet, and had a steel hull. Cost $88,082.07. This boat was sold to the Westchester Ferry Company in May, 1923, for $65,000.00 and has since been running between Yonkers, New York, and Alpine, New Jersey.
The ferryboat HOPATCONG was built in the year 1885 by John Bigler & Company, Newburgh, New York. She was launched on July 7, 1885, and delivered September 5, 1885. Cost, $25,000.00. She was 843.13 gross tons, 615.21 net tons, 197 6/10 feet long, 35 3/10 feet wide, with a draft of 13 feet. While this ferryboat was lying in her slip at the D. L. & W. R. R. Terminal on the night of August 7, 1905, she was completely destroyed by fire. The hull of this boat, which was steel, was turned into a coal barge.
The ferryboat MUSCONETCONG was built in the same year as the HOPATCONG, by John Bigler of Newburgh, New York, at a cost of $40,000.00. She
was 197 4/10 feet long, 35 3/10 feet wide, draft 13 feet, 842.66 gross tons, 614.30 net tons, had a single deck and a steel hull. The boat was launched on September 15, 1885, and delivered to the Ferry Company a month later. She was sold to the Westchester Ferry Company in 1923 for $85,000.00 and put on the run between Yonkers, New York, and Alpine, New Jersey, on May 20, 1923.
On the Performance of a Double- Screw Ferryboat
FOLLOWING is an abstract taken from the Transactions of the Society of Mechanical Engineers for the year 1889-90, as written by E. A. Stevens:
"The first propeller boat used for ferry purpose was constructed in the first decade of this century by my grandfather, John Stevens, and made a run between Hoboken and Barclay Street, my uncles, John C. Stevens and Robert L. Stevens, acting respectively as pilot and engineer.
"The engines of this vessel are at present in the Stevens Institute; and while the vessel would hardly be classed as a ferryboat in our understanding of the word, it is a curious coincidence that she was run over the very route on which the BERGEN is now serving.
"About forty years ago my uncle, Robert L. Stevens, and my father, E. A. Stevens, went so far as to have an estimate made by Hogg & Delamater, predecessors of the Delamater Iron Works, for a screw ferryboat for the Hoboken Ferries.
"In 1867 a patent was obtained by Edwin L. Brady of New York for a screw-propeller ferryboat. Two vessels of nine hundred tons burden were built under this patent. If they were used as ferryboats at all, it was to a very limited extent. They were used
subsequently at the mouth of the Mississippi River as agitating dredges. It is believed that the washing of the levees caused by the quick water from the screws was so serious as to cause their use as ferryboats to be abandoned.
"Some twenty years ago Mr. Brady consulted on the matter of screw ferryboats with the late Captain Woolsey of the Jersey City Ferries, General McClellan, and Mr. William W. Shippen, then President of the Hoboken Land and Improvement Company. It was Mr. Brady's idea at the time that boats could be built under proper conditions.
"About the same time, it is said, a single-screw vessel was used with only partial success, on the Connecticut River, to transfer cars across the stream.
"About, if not at, the same time, Mr. Francis R. Stevens, of Hoboken, made a model for a double- ended-propeller ferryboat, to which I will refer later, the subject having been considerably discussed by the Management and by Professor R. H. Thurston, then of Stevens Institute and now of Cornell University.
"In August 1879, the OXTON, a double-ended boat with twin screws at each end, was placed in service on the Mersey, between Birkenhead and Liverpool, England. Since that time a number of similar vessels have been built and operated on the same route. The landings are made from the side of the vessels and not over her ends, as is the practice in this country. The vessels are considered successful, having great manoeuvering power, and being more economical than the sidewheel vessels, which they replaced.
[inserted plate] picture. The First Double-Screw Ferryboat in the World- the Bergen
"Four years ago a paper was read before this Society in Boston by Mr. William Cowles of New York containing general drawings of a proposed screw ferryboat, and comparing it closely with the prevailing type of ferryboat in use in the New York Harbor, and with an improved compound sidewheel boat suggested by him.
"Mr. Cowles proposed using a toggle-joint on each side of his engine so as to give proper submersion for his screws, which he further proposed to protect from ice by guard braces, and by a false stem projecting down in front and connected with a shoe running from the keep. He further proposed using a double smokestack, carried up on the divisions between the cabins and the team gangway.
"The problem of constructing a screw ferryboat has been a long-standing one with the Hoboken ferries. Early in the 70's, as previously noted, Mr. Francis B. Stevens, of Hoboken, got up a model and some preliminary drawings for such a vessel. The Management, though not prepared for so radical a departure, kept the question before their minds as a possibility. Early in 1885 it became evident that two new boats must soon be built, and the question was raised whether they should be made propeller boats or not. With some reluctance it was decided that there was not sufficient time to mature the necessary plans, as it became evident that the subject needed careful and close study. Accordingly the ferryboats MONTCLAIR and ORANGE were built, the last sidewheel boats to be built for the ferries.
end page 71 -
SEE library record 2004.026.0004.02 for pages 70 to 100; library record 2004.026.0004.03 for pages 100 to end of volume.
For beginning of volume to page 40, see primary record, 2004.026.0004.